Executive Agreements Are Most Similar To What

Some other nations have similar provisions for treaty ratification. Executive agreements are often used to circumvent the requirements of national constitutions for treaty ratification. Many nations that are republics with written constitutions have constitutional rules on treaty ratification. The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe is based on executive agreements. 91 See z.B. Tian, Lu, Zucker, David-Wei, L. J., On the Cox Model with Time-Varying Regression Coefficients, 100 J. Stat. Ass`n 172, 172 (2005) (“The most popular semiparametric regression model for analyzing survival data is the Proportional Risk Model (PH).) (Quote omitted). For examples of international law, see Elkins, Zachary, Simmons, Andrew T.

Guzman and Beth A., Competing for Capital: The Diffusion of Bilateral Investment Treatys, 1960-2000, 60 Int`l Org. 811, 828 (2006) (estimate of adoption periods for bilateral investment contracts using a Cox model); Simmons, Beth A., International Law and State Behavior: Commitment and Compliance in International Monetary Affairs, 94 Am. Pol. Sci. Rev. 819, 823 (2000) (using the Cox model to estimate the time it takes for states to accept obligations under Article VIII of the IMF statutes). In Table 5, the same model specifications are executed with the competing complementary protocol protocol. Again, the results consistently show that treaty agreements are those that are concluded in the form of executive agreements.

The results therefore do not depend on the specific characteristics of the Cox model, but are also robust for other model specifications. Let`s look at the first ex-post executive agreements of Congress. As mentioned above, ex-congress executive agreements are rare, with a share of less than 1 percent in 1980 and 2000. Table 6 contains results on the contract indicator coefficient when the model is executed separately on ex-post congressional executive agreements and all other international commitments. Footnote 101 While most model specifications suggest that there may be a permanence difference between ex post congress executive agreements and contracts, this difference is much smaller and statistically insignificant. In each model specification containing other executive agreements, the difference is significant and statistically significant. As a result, the evidence is consistent with the view that the differences between the treaties and the executive agreements of Congress for ex post executive agreements are less pronounced. 38 See McClure, supra 3, 363 (reducing the relevance of contracts for a small set of non-controversial issues); see also Louis Henkin, Constitutionalism, Democracy, and Foreign Affairs 60 (1990) (finding that the executive agreement is the most democratic instrument); See also Ackerman – Golove, supra note 30, at 916 (concluding that the rise of the congressional executive agreement favors “[e]fficacy, democracy [and] legitimacy”). 74 For each statute, a manual search of all executive agreements between the United States and the party covered by the law is conducted within two years of the passage of the legislation.

Not all acts actually authorize an executive agreement in the treaty. For example, the South African Democratic Transition Support Act of 1993 encourages investment and trade in South Africa. See South African Democratic Transition Support Act 1993, Pub. L. No. 103-149, 107 Stat. 1503 (1993). It can therefore reasonably be interpreted as the approval of previous investment and trade agreements between the United States and South Africa. However, there was no such agreement in the years prior to the act contained in the TIF. Indeed, the first investment contract was concluded shortly after the adoption of the statute. 104 However, remember that the inclusion of solid objects does not result in major changes in coefficients.